Liberalizacija tržišta usluga

Liberalizacija tržišta usluga je regulatorna reforma koja se međuresorno provodi kroz Nacionalni program reformi 2020. gdje je cilj primjenom PMR metodologije nastaviti poticati konkurenciju na tržištu usluga, kroz smanjenje ukupne razine reguliranosti profesija i poticati sprječavanje uvođenja novih regulacija tržišta, usluga i profesija, kako bi se otvorio prostor za povećanje produktivnosti i inovativnosti gospodarstva, (samo)zapošljavanja novih poduzetnika i konkurentnije cijene usluga.

Kao pokazatelj rezultata uzima se 260 provedenih mjera u preko 50 djelatnosti i profesija do kraja srpnja 2021. Ova se reforma nastavlja kroz akcijske planove Vlade RH. Pritom je provedeno 12 od 20 mjera iz prvog Akcijskog plana, a preostalih 8 mjera u provedbi je tijekom 2021. Također, drugi Akcijski plan (dokumenti 55 - 10) donosi dodatnih 18 mjera, od kojih je 16 predviđeno za provedbu tijekom 2021. odnosno 2022., a 2 su mjere provedene.

Liberalizacija tržišta usluga provodi se kao nastavak reforme reguliranih profesija i kroz Nacionalni plan oporavka i otpornosti 2021. - 2026. gdje je cilj do kraja 2024. pojednostaviti ili ukinuti najmanje 50 dodatnih regulatornih zahtjeva privatnom sektoru u području profesionalnih usluga. Kako bi ostvarila navedeni cilj, Vlada će usvojiti treći Akcijski plan za liberalizaciju tržišta usluga.

Kako bi se provodilo mjerenje međunarodno usporedivih rezultata, primjenjuje se OECD-ova metodologija PMR 2018 (u usporedbi s PMR 2013) prema kojoj je ukupna reguliranost hrvatskog gospodarstva odnosno tržišta usluga snižena s najviše razine EU-a na prosječnu razinu EU-a i OECD-a. Navedeni rezultat uključuje sniženu razinu reguliranosti pristupa tržištu (pokretanje poslovanja, uslužni i mrežni sektori, javna nabava, trgovina i ulaganja, taksi usluge i glavne tržišne profesije (računovođe, agenti za nekretnine, arhitekti i inženjeri). U navedenim područjima hrvatsko tržište usluga nalazi se među deset najniže reguliranih na unutarnjem tržištu EU-a. Metodologija se koristi za analiziranje pojedinih vrsta regulacija kako bi se razlikovao opravdani minimum zaštite potrošača i kvalitete od prekomjerne regulacije koja bi izravno utjecala na konkurentnost tržišta. Također, uzimaju se u obzir i specifičnosti pojedinih profesija te usporedni rezultati država članica Srednje i Istočne Europe (sa sličnim regulatornim okvirom), odnosno prosjek EU-a. S druge strane, reguliranost sektora državne imovine, vode i primarnog zdravstvenog osiguranja (što je izvan opsega ove reforme), ljekarni i pravnih usluga iznad je prosjeka EU-a.
 
Institucionalni tržišni okvir koji uređuje pravo poslovnog nastana i slobodu pružanja usluga dijele sve države Europskog gospodarskog prostora (EU+EFTA) kroz Ugovor o funkcioniranju Europske unije (članci 49.-61.). Navedeni okvir konkretnije uređuje Direktiva o uslugama koja je prenijeta kroz Zakon o uslugama. Liberalizacija tržišta usluga provodi se i shodno specifičnim reformskim preporukama u okviru Europskog semestra.

U suradnji s Europskom komisijom i s više država članica potiče se u što većoj mjeri slobodno tržište usluga i roba odnosno uklanjanje prepreka poslovanju na europskom tržištu, što je važno i za hrvatske izvoznike. 
 
Centar unutarnjeg tržišta EU-a pruža podršku lakšem pristupu europskom tržištu objedinjavajući niz alata koje koriste sve EU/EGP države - sve na jednom mjestu. Pritom se koriste 3 alata za administrativnu podršku lakšem pokretanju poslovanja i pristupu tržištu usluga:

Jedinstvena kontaktna točka za usluge na jednom mjestu pruža niz informacija o pokretanju poslovanja na hrvatskom tržištu usluga (registracija poslovnog nastanasloboda pružanja usluga, uvjeti za obavljanje djelatnosti i dr). Dostupan je i ulaz na EUGO mrežu koja izvoznicima odgovara na pitanja kako poslovati u Europskoj uniji te posebice u pojedinim državama članicama. Međuresorno se nastavlja provoditi dodatno pojednostavljenje i digitalizacija procedura ishođenja odobrenja za pojedine uslužne djelatnosti. Jedinstvena kontaktna točka za usluge (kao i Kontaktna točka za proizvode) predstavlja uslugu podrške korisnicima kroz Jedinstveni digitalni pristupnik (Single Digital Gateway). To je europski projekt koji su sve države članice u suradnji s Europskom komisijom razvile putem portala Vaša Europa, gdje se nalaze poveznice na niz regulatornih i administrativnih informacija za poduzetnike i građane. Pritom se poduzetnicima i građanima omogućuju jednostavno pretraživanje informacija putem poveznica, online prijava tržišnih prepreka i mogu se dati korisničke povratne informacije.
 
Informacijski sustav unutarnjeg tržišta (IMI) je zajednički europski elektronički sustav koji služi za prekogranično obavješćivanje o (ne)opravdanosti regulatornih zahtjeva za tržište usluga, kako bi se uklonila neopravdana ograničenja slobode pružanja na hrvatskom odnosno europskom tržištu. Također, IMI služi nadležnim tijelima za brze prekogranične administrativne provjere podataka vezane uz različita područja relevantna za unutarnje tržište (stručne kvalifikacije, pružanje usluga, izaslani radnici i dr.). Time se izbjegava prekomjerna birokracija i postojanje odvojenih IT sustava za pojedina područja.

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Services market liberalisation

Services market liberalisation is a regulatory reform, which is implemented across sectors thorough the National Reform Programme 2020. The purpose is “to continue to boost competition on the services market through reducing the level of regulation of professions, and to encourage prevention of introducing new regulation of the market, services and professions in order to create a space for increasing productivity and innovation of the economy, (self)employment of new entrepreneurs and more competitive prices of services", by applying OECD’s PMR methodology.
 
260 deregulation measures which were implemented in over 50 business activities and professions by the end of March 2021 serve as an indicator of the result. This reform continues through action plans of the Government of the Republic of Croatia. In this regard, 12 out of 20 measures have been implemented from the First Action Plan, and the rest of 8 measures will be implemented during 2021. Furthermore, the Second Action Plan for services market liberalisation (documents 55-10) was adopted in April 2021 with 18 measures, 16 of which should be implemented during 2021 or 2022, and 2 measures have been implemeted.

Services market liberalisation is carried out as a continuation of the regulated professions’ reform also through the National Recovery and Resilience Plan 2021–2026. The aim is, by the end of 2024, to simplify or to remove at least 50 additional regulatory requirements to private sector in the area of professional services.

In order to carry out the measurement of internationally comparable results, OECD’s PMR 2018 methodology (in comparison with PMR 2013) is applied with support of the European Commission, and according to that methodology the level of regulation of the Croatian economy, i.e. the services market has been reduced from the highest level of the EU to the average level of the EU and OECD. The mentioned result involves a reduced level of regulation in terms of the market access (starting business, service and network sectors, public procurement, foreign retail and investments, taxi services and the main market professions (accountants, real estate agents, architects and engineers)). In the mentioned fields, Croatian services market is among ten with the lowest level of regulation on the internal market. The methodology is being used to analyse specific sorts of regulations in order to differentiate justified minimum of consumer protection and the quality, against the excessive regulation, which would directly impact the market competitiveness. Furthermore, specific features of particular professions are also observed as well as comparable results of member countries of Central and Eastern Europe (with a similar regulatory frame), i.e. the EU average. On the other side, the level of regulation of the state property sector, water sector and primary health insurance (outside the scope of this reform), pharmacies and legal services, is above the EU average.
 
Institutional market framework which regulates the right of establishment and freedom to provide services is shared by all countries of the European Economic Area (EU+EFTA) by means of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (Articles 49-61). The mentioned framework is more specifically regulated by the Services Directive  which is transposed to the national legislation by the Services Act. Services market liberalisation is carried out in accordance with specific reform recommendations and in cooperation with competent authorities.

Free market for goods and services, i.e. removing barriers to business in the European market, should be promoted as much as possible in cooperation with the European Commission and more Member States, which is important for the Croatian exporters as well. 
 
EU Internal Market Centre provides support for the easier access to the European market by integrating several tools used by EU/EEA countries – as a one-stop-shop. There are three tools used for the administrative support for easier start of a business and easier access to the services market:

Point of Single Contact for services is a one-stop-shop that provides a range of information on starting a business in the Croatian services market (registering a business, freedom to provide services, sectoral requirements and so on). The access to EUGO network is available and it provides exporters with answers on how to do a business in the European Union and especially in a specific Member State. Additional simplification and digitalisation of procedures for obtaining licenses in specific service sectors are continuously carried out across sectors. Point of Single Contact for services (as well as Product Contact Point) represents a user support service via Single Digital Gateway. This is a European project developed by all Member States in cooperation with the European Commission via Your Europe platform with links to a range of regulatory and administrative information for citizens and entrepreneurs. In this way, a simple search of information is available to entrepreneurs and citizens via links, along with online notification of market barriers and with option of user feedback.
 
Internal Market Information System (IMI) is a joint European electronic system which serves for cross-border notification on (un)justified regulatory requirements for the services market in order to remove unjustified barriers to freedom to provide services in Croatian or European market. Furthermore, IMI serves to competent authorities for fast cross-border administrative verification of data related to different areas relevant for the internal market (professional qualifications, provision of services, posted workers and so on). In this manner, red tape is avoided as well as separate IT systems for specific fields.